Grade 8 – Multiple Choice

MULTIPLE CHOICE, 1 point each

Ancient Greece

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1 The Minoan civilization, which flourished between 2700 B.C. and 1450 B.C., was established _____.
A) in Athens
B) in Mycenae
C) on Crete
D) in Troy
2 Homer taught that the Greek value of arête, or excellence, is achieved through _____.
A) study
B) honor
C) worship
D) struggle
3 The Greek city-states relied on infantrymen called _____ for their defense.
A) helots
B) hoplites
C) phalanx
D) oracles
4 The art of _____ was the Spartan ideal.
A) war
B) debate
C) tyranny
D) law
5 During the Age of Pericles, the Athenians became deeply attached to their political system of _____.
A) direct democracy
B) oligarchy
C) tyranny
D) representative democracy
6 A turning point in the Great Peloponnesian War came when _____.
A) a plague killed more than a third of the people in Athens
B) Sparta destroyed the Athenian fleet
C) the Athenians charged the Spartans outside the city walls
D) the Spartans were able to break down the city walls of Athens


7 In order to learn the will of the gods, the Greeks _____.
A) built temples
B) made use of oracles
C) developed festivals
D) developed a body of religious doctrine
8 _____ taught that the essence of the universe could be found in music and numbers.
A) Socrates
B) Aristotle
C) Pythagoras
D) Plato
9 Greek culture spread in Southwest Asia during the Hellenistic Era because _____.
A) Hellenistic rulers encouraged a massive spread of Greek colonists to Southwest Asia.
B) Greek administrators, architects, actors, and others moved to the new Greek cities.
C) All government business was transacted in Greek rather than native languages.
10 The most famous scientist of the Hellenistic Era was _____.
A) Archimedes
B) Epicurus
C) Euclid
D) Zeno

Rome and the Rise of Christianity

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1 As the Roman Empire expanded, the Romans created a body of law known as the _____ that applied standards of justice to all people.
A) Twelve Tables
B) Law of Nations
C) civil law
D) law of reason
2 Carthage’s greatest general, _____, was finally defeated at the Battle of Zama.
A) Scipio
B) Cincinnatus
C) Hannibal
D) Livy
3 _____ pushed for land reform as a remedy for Rome’s economic and social crises.
A) The Gracchus brothers
B) Marius
C) Sulla
D) Octavian
4 As the first Roman emperor, _____ restored stability to the Roman Empire.
A) Caesar
B) Pompey
C) Octavian
D) Hadrian
5 The Romans displayed their engineering skills by _____.
A) learning how to use concrete in architecture
B) building a dozen aqueducts in Rome
C) building an extensive network of roads
D) All of these.




6 _____ led the most famous slave revolt in Italy, which lasted for two years.
A) Juvenal
B) Spartacus
C) Virgil
D) Horace
7 The Jews differed among themselves about Roman rule, with the _____ advocating cooperation with the Romans.
A) Sadducees
B) Essenes
C) Pharisees
D) Zealots
8 _____ founded Christian communities in Asia Minor and along the Aegean Sea.
A) Judaea
B) Jesus
C) Simon Peter
D) Paul
9 When economic and military problems threatened the Roman Empire in the third century, Diocletian introduced changes that included _____.
A) dividing the empire into 4 units
B) reducing the administrative bureaucracies
C) ending taxation
D) hiring only Roman citizens in the army
10 The _____ were the last to sack Rome before Romulus Augustulus was deposed and the Western Roman Empire fell.
A) Huns
B) Visigoths
C) Barbarians
D) Vandals

The World of Islam

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1 The Arabian Peninsula took on a new importance when political disorder in Mesopotamia and Egypt _____.
A) created tensions between Bedouins and Egyptians
B) ended trade in the region
C) shifted trade routes through Makkah to Yemen and then across the Indian Ocean
D) limited trade to Mesopotamia
2 In the year 1 of the Islamic calendar, Muhammad and his followers relocated to _____.
A) Madinah
B) Makkah
C) Damascus
D) Baghdad
3 After Muhammad’s death, Muslim scholars developed a law code known as the _____.
A) Quran
B) shari’ah
C) Hijrah
D) hajj
4 A revolt of Muslims in 680 in Iraq led to a split of Islam, with _____ Muslims accepting only the descendants of Ali as the true rulers of Islam.
A) Sunni
B) Umayyad
C) Hussein
D) Shia


5 What was significant about the Battle of Tours?
A) Arab expansion in Europe was halted.
B) The Umayyads emerged as caliphates.
C) A split in Islam occurred.
D) Seljuk Turks conquered the Byzantine Empire.
6 The Umayyad capital was at Damascus, but the Abbasids moved the capital of the Arab Empire to _____.
A) Makkah
B) Cairo
C) Jerusalem
D) Baghdad
7 How were Arab traders’ goods carried over land for long distances?
A) by mules
B) by donkeys
C) by camels
D) All of these.



8 Although according to Islam, all people are equal in the eyes of Allah, _____.
A) women had no right to own and inherit property
B) merchants received no respect in the Islamic world
C) peasants worked as indentured servants for wealthy landowners
D) slaves were not considered equals
9 Muslim contributions to later European culture included _____.
A) the improvement of the astrolabe
B) translations of and commentaries on the works of Aristotle
C) the development of algebra
D) All of these.
10 The Alhambra in _____ is considered the finest example of an Islamic palace.
A) Samarra
B) Granada
C) Córdoba
D) Baghdad



Early African Civilizations

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1 Which of these is NOT one of the four distinct climate zones in Africa?
A) savanna
B) desert
C) rain forest
D) humid continental
2 _____ gave rise to the first civilizations in Africa.
A) Iron ore smelting
B) The slave trade
C) The mastery of farming
D) The development of new weapons
3 The kingdom of Axum _____.
A) brought about the decline of Kush
B) combined Arab and African cultures
C) competed with Kush over control of the ivory trade
D) All of these.
4 _____ helped turn Ghana into a great trading empire.
A) Vast supplies of iron and gold
B) Farming
C) Slavery
D) The ivory trade
5 _____ imported scholars and books to introduce his subjects to Islam.
A) Sundiata Keita
B) Mansa Musa
C) Sunni Ali
D) Muhammad Ture
6 Muhammad Ture divided _____ into administrative provinces.
A) Songhai
B) Ghana
C) Mali
D) Axum




7 _____ was one of the most magnificent port cities to develop out of the coastal trade in East Africa.
A) Meroë
B) Timbuktu
C) Kilwa
D) Great Zimbabwe
8 Many African societies were matrilineal, in other words_____.
A) lineage was traced through the mother
B) women could inherit property
C) women oversaw the education of children
D) the husband moved into his wife’s home
9 Which of the following beliefs was NOT shared by most African societies?
A) a belief in a single creator god and lesser gods
B) a belief in a single god
C) a belief in the importance of ancestors
D) a belief in an afterlife



10 What were African griots known for?
A) telling stories about legends, religious traditions, and history
B) performing religious rituals
C) making intricate wood and bronze carvings
D) performing dances that represented spirits

The Asian World

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1 Early accomplishments of the Tang dynasty included _____.
A) the restoration of the civil service examination
B) the building of the Grand Canal
C) the reunification of China
D) moving the capital to Hangzhou
2 Who was the first female emperor of China?
A) Sui Yangdi
B) Yang Guifei
C) An Lushan
D) Wu Zhao
3 Which of the following did the Mongols NOT attack?
A) Persia
B) Vietnam
C) western Europe
D) China
4 Neo-Confucianism, which received official support during the Song dynasty, taught that _____.
A) the world is an illusion
B) the goal of humans is to embrace the material world
C) individuals must examine the moral principles that rule the universe
D) the material and spiritual world are united
5 Which of the following led to a strong central government in early Japan?
A) the samurai
B) the influence of the Yamatos
C) the daimyos
D) aristocratic control of tax-exempt farmland



6 Murasaki Shikibu was a noted _____.
A) member of the Koryo dynasty
B) samurai warrior
C) female novelist
D) Yamato prince
7 After the creation of the sultanate of Delhi, the relationship between Muslim rulers and the Hindu people was one of _____.
A) rivalry
B) friendship and understanding
C) harmony
D) reluctant tolerance
8 Which of the following statements about India after the Guptas is correct?
A) When internal trade was interrupted, foreign trade also suffered.
B) Foreign trade remained high even when Indian states were at war.
C) Foreign trade was dominated by Muslim merchants, who had ties to other Muslim states.
D) India had long been a center for trade between Asia and Europe.


9 _____ adopted China’s model of centralized government.
A) Vietnam
B) The Sultanate of Melaka
C) Pagan
D) Angkor
10 At the top of the ladder in most Southeast Asian societies were the _____, who held both political power and economic wealth.
A) merchants
B) hereditary aristocrats
C) scholar-gentry
D) artisans

Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire

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1 Which of the following statements about Clovis is correct?
A) He formed the first Germanic state.
B) He ruled the Ostrogoth kingdom.
C) He was the first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity.
D) His sons enlarged the Frankish kingdom after his death.
2 Unlike Roman law, Germanic law _____.
A) sometimes required a person to compensate his or her victim
B) was based on Christian teachings
C) did not involve ordeals
D) treated murder as a crime against the state
3 _____ used the monastic movement to convert the non-Christian peoples of Germanic Europe to Christianity.
A) Clovis
B) Gregory I
C) Charlemagne
D) Pepin
4 At its height, the empire established by Charlemagne _____.
A) included much of western and central Europe
B) restored the Frankish kingdom to the size it was under Clovis
C) included only eastern Europe
D) included much of current day Spain



5 Which of the following was true about feudal Europe?
A) Leaders swore an oath of allegiance to the pope.
B) Men who served a lord in a military capacity were known as vassals.
C) Lords relied mainly on foot soldiers dressed in coats of armor.
D) Lords did not have any responsibility toward their vassals.
6 Which of the following influenced the development of the concept of chivalry?
A) the Catholic Church
B) Viking culture
C) feudal warfare
D) Germanic law
7 By expanding the power of the royal courts, King _____ enhanced the power of the English monarchy.
A) John
B) Edward
C) Philip II Augustus
D) Henry II



8 By gaining control of territory after war with English rulers, _____ expanded the income of the French monarchy and increased its power.
A) William of Normandy
B) Hugh Capet
C) Philip II Augustus
D) Philip the Fair
9 Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of the Byzantine Empire?
A) Greek language
B) Christian faith
C) absolute power of the emperor
D) continual struggle between the emperor and patriarch
10 The first crusaders were motivated mostly by _____.
A) opportunities to claim new territory
B) a desire for adventure
C) trading opportunities
D) religious fervor

Europe in the Middle Ages

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1 Which of the following did NOT contribute to an increase in food production and population growth during the Middle Ages?
A) the invention of the ox collar
B) a climate change
C) a heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare
D) a three-field system of crop rotation
2 Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the revival of trade in Europe?
A) the emergence of a money economy
B) a regular exchange of goods between Flanders and Italy
C) the establishment of banking firms
D) the decline of old Roman cities as centers of trade
3 To join a guild, a person needed to _____.
A) become an apprentice
B) become a master
C) have five to seven years of experience
D) become a journeyman
4 An example of the Church’s dominant role in people’s lives during the High Middle Ages was the _____, which barred some people from receiving the sacraments.
A) investiture controversy
B) interdict
C) Concordat of Worms
D) Cistercian order
5 A desire for greater discipline prompted a group of monks in the Middle Ages to form the new order of _____.
A) Benedictines
B) Cistercians
C) Franciscans
D) Dominicans
6 During the Inquisition, relapsed heretics were _____.
A) forced to perform public penance
B) flogged
C) tortured until they confessed
D) Executed


7 The invention of _____ in the construction of Gothic cathedrals made the use of stained glass windows possible.
A) barrel vaults
B) pointed arches
C) flying buttresses
D) ribbed vaults
8 Scholasticism’s chief task was to _____.
A) reconcile monarchical power and the power of the Church
B) harmonize Christian teachings with Greek philosophy
C) translate the works of Greek philosophers
D) denounce the Greek philosophers
9 Which of these did NOT overwhelm Europe in the fourteenth century?
A) the Reconquista
B) the Hundred Years’ War
C) the Black Death
D) severe economic problems




10 A dispute over _____ led to the Great Schism of the Church.
A) the nationality of the pope
B) taxation of the clergy
C) the king’s power to appoint bishops
D) the lifestyle of the pope

Renaissance and Reformation

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1 During the Italian Renaissance, people believed _____.
A) they were witnessing a rebirth of ancient Greece and Rome
B) they had entered a new age of human achievement
C) well-rounded people could achieve in many areas of life
D) All of these.
2 Which of the following city-states did NOT play a central role in the politics of Renaissance Italy?
A) Florence
B) Milan
C) Naples
D) Venice
3 Machiavelli’s The Prince _____.
A) described how a prince should acquire and keep political power
B) based political power on Christian principles
C) condemned the excesses of the Medici family
D) attacked the corruption of the Church
4 What was the basis of humanism, a key intellectual movement of the Renaissance?
A) interest in art and sculpture
B) secularism
C) study of the classics
D) political theory
5 Dante and Chaucer were two authors who wrote their works in _____.
A) classical Latin
B) classical Greek
C) French
D) the vernacular




6 Frescoes _____.
A) required the use of oil paints
B) were painted on wet plaster
C) were first produced in the Low Countries
D) were first produced during the High Renaissance
7 A major goal of humanism in northern Europe was _____.
A) to increase the use of Christian relics
B) to spread secularism
C) to reform the Catholic Church
D) to encourage people to participate in civic life
8 The chief teaching of the Protestant Reformation was that _____.
A) faith and good works were necessary to gain personal salvation
B) good works alone were the key to salvation
C) only through faith in God could humans be saved
D) purchasing indulgences would bring salvation



9 Which of the following was a religious reform called for by Martin Luther?
A) ending the Church’s involvement in politics
B) ending the sacrament of the Eucharist
C) ending the sacrament of baptism
D) allowing clergy to marry
10 Who of the following was NOT a Protestant reformer?
A) Ignatius of Loyola
B) Martin Luther
C) John Calvin
D) Ulrich Zwingli

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